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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

When submitting articles, the author should pay attention:

1) Articles must be in accordance with the scope of scientific journals.

2) The article is sent in Microsoft Word format with the following conditions:

  • A4 paper (21 cm X 21,7cm) with page margin; Left (1.5 inch), upper (1.2 inch), right (1.5 inch), and bottom (1 inch)
  • The number of pages of manuscripts ranges from 12 to 25 pages.
  • The manuscript is composed of one column with the Cambria font including for the title of the article (Cambria).
  • The conjunctions (and, in, or, with, and, about, that, against, so, for, then, for, for) and the foregoing (in, too, from, on, to, in, by, with lowercase letters.

3) Articles are written with the following systematic.

TYPE TITLE OF YOUR ARTICLES (Cambria 16, up to 150 characters)

First author (Cambria 11; 1 space)

Second Author (Cambria 11; 1 space)

1 First author's affiliation (Institution / University / etc.)

2 Second author's affiliation (Institution / University / etc.)

* Correspondence: correspondence and email (Cambria 10; 1 space)


Abstract (Cambria 10 pt)

The abstract is to be in fully-justified italicized text as it is here, and should stand alone, which means that no citation in the abstract. The abstract should concisely inform the reader of the manuscript’s purpose, its methods, its findings, and its value. The abstract should be relatively nontechnical, yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution. The manuscript’s title, but neither the author’s name nor other identification designations, should appear on the abstract page. An abstract consists of no more than 200 words.

Keywords:  Consists of 3 to 5 words and/or group of words written in alphabetical order and separated by semicolons (,).

JEL Classificationat least one. (American Economic Association)

INTRODUCTION (Cambria 12; 1.25 space)

What is the purpose of the study? Why are you conducting the study? The main section of an article should start with an introductory section which provides more details about the paper’s purposes, motivation, research methods and findings. The introduction should be relatively nontechnical, yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution.

Next paragraph should be first line indentation for 0.25”

 An introduction is written with Cambria 12 font (1.25 spaces).


The literature review represents the theoretical core of an article. The four questions for compiling a literature review are:

-       which aspects should I include in a literature review?

-       how should I go about to synthesize information in a literature review?

-       how should I structure a literature review?

-       what writing style should I use when compiling a literature review?

The purpose of a literature review is to “look again” (re + view) at what other researchers have done regarding a specific topic. A literature review is a means to an end, namely to provide background, and serve as motivation for the objectives and hypotheses that guide your own research.

A good literature review does not merely summarize relevant previous research. In the literature review, the researcher critically evaluates, re-organizes and synthesizes the work of others. In a sense, compiling a literature review is like making a smoothie or fruit shake: The end product is a condensed mix that differs totally in appearance from the individual ingredients used as inputs. The key to a successful literature review lies in your ability to “digest” information from different sources, critically evaluate it and resent your conclusions in a concise, logical and reader-friendly manner.

First-time researchers often naively believe everything they read or are scared to criticize the work of others. However, academic research is all about critical inquiry. It is, therefore, extremely important that you critically evaluate the material that you read. Do you agree with the arguments and conclusions of other researchers? If you disagree, why? Can you identify contradictory arguments or findings? How could one explain these contradictions? Do the findings of previous studies applying all contexts or are the findings context-specific? What are the criticisms against the conceptual models or measurement approaches discussed in the literature? Which limitations should be considered when interpreting the results of previous research?

You have to carefully read the most recent available literature with a view to identify specific gaps, inconsistencies and/or controversies that may form the basis of your own research. Always show that you have considered an issue from a number of angles and that you are aware of the arguments for and against a specific point of view.

To compile a proper literature review, one has to overcome three specific challenges, namely:

-       finding appropriate literature on a specific topic;

-       managing the information; and

-       presenting a logical, synthesized and reader-friendly review of the current knowledge relating to a specific topic.

Consider the following search strategies: Blackwell Synergy; Proquest Data Basis; Emerald; and others open access journal using Google Scholar. Scimago Journal and Country Rank (SJR) https://www.scimagojr.com/

Add the conceptual framework (if any). 

Development of Hypotheses


METHODS (Cambria 12; 1.25 space)

The methods section describes the steps followed in the execution of the study and also provides a brief justification for the research methods used. It should contain enough detail to enable the reader to evaluate the appropriateness of your methods and the reliability and validity of your findings. Furthermore, the information should enable experienced researchers to replicate your study. 

The methodology section typically has the following sub-sections:

-       Target population,

-       Sampling

-       Research context

-       Units of analysis;

-       Data collection

-       Variables operational definition

Variables measurement = proxy.


RESULTS (Cambria 12; 1.25 space)

The results section summarizes the data collected for the study in the form of descriptive statistics and also reports the results of relevant inferential statically analysis (e.g., hypothesis tests) conducted on the data. You need to report the results in sufficient detail so that the reader can see which statically analyses were conducted and why, and to justify your conclusions. Mention all relevant results, including those that are at odds with the stated hypotheses.

You should present your findings as concisely as possible and still provide enough detail to properly justify your conclusions, as well as enable the reader to understand exactly what you did in terms of data analysis and why.

You may assume that the reader has a working knowledge of basic statistics (i.e., typically the contents covered in a 1st statistics course). It is, therefore, not necessary to discuss basic statistical procedures in detail. You may, however, have to explain advanced multivariate statistical methods (e.g., repeated measures ANOVA, two- or –way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis and factor analysis) in non-technical terms. Figures and Tables (detached from main of manuscript) often allow one to present findings in a clear and concise manner.

(Vertical lines are unnecessary for your tables)


DISCUSSION (Cambria 12; 1.25 space)

Discussion, in many ways, is the most important section in an article. Because it is the last thing a reader sees, it can have a major impact on the reader’s perceptions of the article and of the research conducted. The discussion section should:

-       Restate the study’s main purpose

-       Reaffirm the importance of the study be restating its main contributions

-       Summarize the results in relation to each stated research objective or hypothesis without introducing new material

-       Relate the findings back to the literature and to the results reported by other researches

-       Provide possible explanations for unexpected or non-significant findings

-       Discuss the managerial implications of the study

-       Highlight the main limitations of the study that could influence its internal and external validity

-       Discuss insightful (i.e., non-obvious) directions or opportunities for future research on the topic

The discussion section should not merely restate the findings reported in the result section or report additional findings that have not been discussed earlier in the article. The focus should rather be on highlighting the broader implications of the study’s findings and relating this back to previous research. Make sure that the conclusions you reach follow logically from and are substantiated by the evidence presented in your study.

CONCLUSION (Cambria 12; 1.25 space)

Make sure that the conclusions you reach follow logically from and are substantiated by the evidence presented in your study. Claims for findings are supported by research results. The author explains the results of his research with hypotheses and with previous studies. Not in the form of a summary of the results, it must contain a synthesis of results that can include readers or provide new knowledge related to the topic. Research articles must be equipped with limitations/limitations of the study, implications of research and experiments with research results, and future directions.


REFERENCES (Cambria 11, Single space)

What’s a reference list for, anyway? For some first-time authors, the purpose of the reference list is to prove that they completed the assignment. They were assigned a research topic; they researched the heck out of it, and the reference list is there to demonstrate their hard work. In the scholarly disciplines, however, the purpose of the reference list is twofold:

-       It allows the author to credit the work of others that directly influenced the present work and document any facts that are not common knowledge; and

-       it gives interested readers the information necessary to identify and retrieve those sources.

Thus, there is no reason to include uncited sources in the reference list. Cite what you use, use what you cite. Follow the American Psychologist Association (APA) Style Quick Guide on APA Style: https://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.

The four basic elements of a reference:

-       Determining the author (who)

-       Determining the date of publication (when)

-       Determining the title (what)

-       Determining publication or source information (where)

The above scripting styles are applied in the Journal of Management and Spread Management Journals template.