Main Article Content

Ayu Ekasari


The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of driver for environmental responsibility, collectivism and subjective norm on behavioral intention in using reusable bag. This was a quantitative survey using a total sample of 282 respondents. Data were analyzed by using multiple regression method in order to test the hypotheses. Findings of the research revealed that driver for environmental responsibility and subjective norm were two strong predictors for behavioral intention in using reusable bag. However, there was no significant effect of collectivism on behavioral intention. The study contributes to the literature of pro-environmental behavior and its antecedents as well as suggestions for policy makers and retailers to design effective social marketing campaign to promote pro-environmental behavior, which is using reusable bag.



Download data is not yet available.

Plum Analytics

Article Details

Author Biography

Ayu Ekasari, Scopus ID [57200730603] Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia


Ajzen, I. (1991). From Intention to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. Downloaded from

Allen, M. (2016). Understanding Pro-Environmental Behavior: Models and Messages. Strategic Communication for Strategic Organizations. United States: Springer.

Bamberg, S., Ajzen, I., & Schmidt, P. (2003). Choice of travel mode in the theory of planned behavior: The roles of past behavior, habit and reasoned action. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 25, 175-188.

Bamberg, S., Fujii, S., Friman, M., & Gärling, T. (2011). Behaviour theory and soft transport policy measures. Transport Policy, 18(1), 228-235.

Chan, L & Bishop, B. (2013). A moral basis for recycling: Extending the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 96-102.

Chih, C. T., & Yu, M. W. (2015). Decisional Factors Driving Organic Food Consumption: Generation of Consume Purchase Intention. British Food Journal, 117(3), 1066-1081.

de Leeuw, A., Valois, P., Ajzen, I., & Schmidt, P. (2015). Using the theory of planned behavior to identify key beliefs underlying pro-environmental behavior in high-school students: implications for educational interventions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 128-138.

Dean, M., Raats, M. M., & Speherd, R. (2008). Moral Concerns and Consumer Choiceof Fresh and Processed Organic Foods. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 8(8), 2088-2107.

Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The Functional Architecture of Human Empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3(2), 71-100.

Frame, B., & Newton, B. (2007). Promoting sustainability through social marketing: examples from New Zealand. Journal of International Consumer Studies, 1-11.

Gadenne, D., Sharma, B., Kerr, D., & Smith, T. (2011). The influence of consumers’ environmental beliefs and attitudes on energy saving behavior. Energy Policy, 39(12), 7684-7694.

Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., & Bergh, B. (2010). Going green to be seen: status, reputation and conspicuous reputation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(3), 392-404.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International. Inc.

Han, H. (2014). The norm activation model and theory-broadening: Individuals’ decision making on environmentally responsible convention attendance. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 462-471. http://dx/

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Culture: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 1-26.

Joohyung, P., & Sejin, H. (2012). Understanding pro-environmental behavior: A comparison of sustainable consumers and apathetic consumers. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 40(5), 388-403.

Kilbourne, W., & Pickett, G. (2008). How materialism affect environmental beliefs, concern and environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of Business Research, 61(9), 885-893.

Kim, Y. (2011). Understanding Green Purchase: The Influence of Collectivism, Personal Values and Environmental Attitudes, and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness. Seoul Journal of Business, 17(1), 65-92.

Kim, Y., & Choi, S. M. (2004). Antecedents of Green Purchase Behavior: An Examination of Collectivism, Environmental Concern and PCE. Advances in Consumer Research, 32, 592-599.

Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2016). Social marketing: Changing Behaviors for Good. SAGE Publications. ISSN 9781452292144.

Kotler, P., & Zaltman, G. (1971). Social marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change. Journal of Marketing, 35, 3-12.

Kumar, P., & Ghodeswar, B. M. (2015). Factors affecting consumers’green product purchase decisions. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 33(3), 330-347.

Lao, K. (2014). Research on Mechanism of Consumer Innovativeness Influencing Green Consumption Behavior. Nankai Business Review International, 5(2), 211-224.

Latif, S. A., & Omar, M. S. (2012). Recycling Behaviour in Tioman Island: A Case Study. Procedia Social and Behavioral Science, 36, 707-715.

Lee, K. (2008). Opportunities for green marketing: young counsumers. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 26(6), 573-586.

McCarthy, J., & Shrum, L. J. (2001). The Influence of Individualism, Collectivism and Locus of Control on Environmental beliefs and Behavior. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-101.

McKenzie-Mohr, D. (2000). Promoting Sustainable Behavior: An Introduction to Community Social-Based Marketing. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 543-554.

Niaura, A. (2013). Using the theory of planned behavior to investigate the determinants of environmental behavior among youth. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 63(1), 74-81.

Onwezen, M. C., Antonides, G., & Bartels, J. (2013). The Norm Activation Model: AN exploration of the functions of anticipated prode and guilt in pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 39, 141-153. http://dx/

Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking Individualism and Collectivism: Evaluation of Theoretical Assumptions and Meta-Analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3-72.

Peattie, K., & Peattie, S. (2008). Social Marketing: a Pathway to Consumption Reduction. Journal of Business Research, 62(2), 260-268.

Poskus, M. S. (2015). Predicting recycling behavior by including moral norms into the theory of planned behavior. Psichologica, 52, 22- 33. ISSN 1392-0359.

Rivis, A., & Sheeran, P. (2003). Descriptive norms as an additional predictor in the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analysis. Cureent Psychology, 22(3), 218-233. http://doi:10.1007/212144-003-10180-2.

Sawitri, D. R., Hadiyanto, H., & Hadi, S. P. (2015). Pro Environmental Behavior from A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 23, 27-33. http://doi.10.1016/j.proenv. 2015.01.005.

Schifman, L. G., & Wisenbilt, J. L. (2015). Consumer Behavior. Global Edition. London: Pearson Education, Inc.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2013). Research method for Business. A Skill-Building Approach. 6th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Semanova, M. (2015). Individualism vs Collectivism: Effect on Our Pro Environmental Behavior. Thesis, Master of Science Communication. University of Otago.

Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: an integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 309-317.

Thogersen, J. (2009). Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food product. Traditional Food Production and Rural Sustainable Development: A European Challenge, 1, 173-192.

Wang, Shih-Tse. (2014). Consumer characteristics and social influence factors on green purchasing intentions. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 32(7), 738-753. http://dx/

Wang, X., Tu, M., & Guo, J. (2016). Determinants of pro-environmental consumption intention in rural Chine: The role traditional cultures, personal attitudes and reference groups. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 215-224.

Yoon, N. C., Anastasia, T., Molly, I. R., Seong, Y. P., & Hyun, J. L. (2013). To be or not to be green: Exploring Individualism and collectivism as antecedents of environmental behavior. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1052-1059.

Zuraidah, R., Hashima, H., Yahya, K., & Mohamad, S. (2012). Environmental Conscious Behaviour Among Male and Female Malaysian Consumers. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(8), 1-12.