Main Article Content

Aisy Kahla Nugraha Putri Kahla Nugraha Putri
Lies Zubardiah


Background. Drugs or addictive compounds used for specific cases are prescribed by physicians and doctors. However, the drugs being illegally misused can cause several health issues including oral health complications. Study shows that abusive drugs can result in periodontal problems which could lead to loss of attachment. Objectives. To assess the degree of gingival recession in drug rehabilitation patients at RSKO. Method. Thirty rehabilitation patients at RSKO Jakarta were observed in the distribution of gingival recession in anterior teeth over clinical photographs. The findings of gingival recession were grouped according to Miller's classification. Gingival recession was observed based on history of oral hygiene maintenance, type of drug, and length of time of drug use. Results. Based on Miller's classification, it was found that grade I gingival recession was 63% and grade II was 38% in patients with poor oral hygiene status. Grade III gingival recession was found in patients with deficiences oral hygiene status. Patients with a history of using mixed drugs had a higher risk of experiencing gingival recession (63%). Grade III gingival recession was mostly found in patients with a history of consuming more than one type of drug (60%), and had taken drugs for more than 5 years (80%). Conclusion. Gingival recession was found more in patients with a history of drug abuse and poor oral hygiene.



Download data is not yet available.

Plum Analytics

Article Details



Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS). Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2018. p207

Lindhe J, Lang NP, Karring T. Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry. 5th ed. Oxford: Willey; 2008.

Mythri S, Arunkumar SM, Hegde S, Rajesh SK, Munaz M, Ashwin D. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2015;19(6):671–675. DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.156881

Pradeep K, Rajababu P, Satyanarayana D, Sagar V. Gingival recession: review and strategies in treatment of recession. Case Rep Dent. 2012;2012: 1-6. doi:10.1155/2012/563421

Utami ND, Komara I. Dentin hypersensitive: Ethiology and treatment. Padjadjaran J Dent. 2015;27(3): 149-155. DOI: 10.24198/pjd.vol27no3.13548.

Badan Narkotika Nasional RI. Pendidikan dan Penyuluhan Narkotika. 2013

Ismawati. Gambaran Periodontitis Pada Residen di Pusat Rehabilitasi Narkoba Kota Banda Aceh [Skripsi]. Aceh: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Syiah Kuala; 2016. Available from:

Carter EF. Dental implications of narcotic addiction. Aust Dent J. 1978; 23(4):308–10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.1978.tb03528.x.

Kayal RA, Elias WY, Alharthi KJ, Demyati AK, Mandurah JM. Illicit drug abuse affects periodontal health status. Saudi Med J. 2014;35(7): 724-8.

Antoniazzi RP, Zanatta FB, Rosing CK, Feldens CA. Association among periodontitis and the use of crack cocaine and other illicit drugs. J Periodontol. 2016;87(12):1396-1405.

Thomson WM, Poulton R, Broadbent JM, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Beck JD. Cannabis smoking and periodontal disease among young adults. JAMA. 2008;299(5): 525 -31. DOI: 10.1001/jama.299.5.525.

Amaral CS, Luiz RR, Leao AT. The Relationship between alcohol dependence and periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2008; 79(6): 993-8. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2008.070525.

Eley BM. Manson JD. Periodontics. 5th ed. London: Wright; 2004.

Fiorellini JP, Stathopoulou PG. Anatomy of the Periodontium. In: Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA, editors. Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology. 12th ed. St.Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p.9-10.

Nield-Gehrig JS, Willmann DE. Foundations of periodontics for the dental hygienist. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2011.

Gehrig JS, Willmann DE. Foundations of periodontics for the dental hygienist. 4th. ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2015.

Mosby Inc. Mosby’s dictionary of medicine, nursing, & health professions. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2013.

Bath-balogh M, Fehrenbach MJ. Illustrated dental embryology, histology, and anatomy. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.

Ravipudi S, Appukuttan D, Prakash PSG., Victor DJ. Gingival recession: Short literature review on etiology, classification and various treatment options. J Pharm Sci Res. 2017;9(2):215-20.

Patel M, Nixon PJ, Chan MF. Gingival recession: Part 1. Aetiology and non-surgical management. Br Dent J. 2011;211(6):251-4. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.764.

Krismariono A. Prinsip Dasar Perawatan Resesi Gingiva. Dentika Dent J. 2014;18(1):96-100.

Clouet D. Narcotic drugs: Biochemical pharmacology. New York: Springer US; 2012.

Julien RM. A primer of drug action: A concise non-technical guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs. New York: A.W.H. Freeman/Owl Book; 2013.

Brand HS, Dun SN, Nieuw AAV. Ecstasy (MDMA) and oral health. Br Dent J. 2008;204(2): 77-81. DOI: 10.1038/bdj.2008.4.

Saini GK, Gupta ND, Prabhat KC. Drug Addiction and Periodontal Diseases. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2013; 17(5): 587–591. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.119277.

Hamamoto DT, Rhodus NL. Methamphetamine abuse and dentistry. Oral Dis. 2009; 15(1): 27–37. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2008.01450.x.

Vij K. Textbook of forensic medicine & toxicology: Principles & practice. 5th ed. India: Elsevier. 2011.

Kayal RA, Elias WY, Alharthi KJ, Demyati AK, Mandurah JM. Illicit

Versteeg PA, Slot DE, van der Velden U, van der Weijden GA. Effect of cannabis usage on the oral environment: A review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2008;6(4):315-20. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037. 2008.00301.x.

Shetty V, Mooney LJ, Zigler CM, Belin TR, Murphy D, Rawson R. The relationship between methamphetamine use and increased dental disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141(3):307-18. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2010.0165.

Mario KA, Marshall TA, Qian F, Morgan TA. Comparing diet, oral hygiene and caries status of adult methamphetamine users and non users: A pilot study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139(2):171-6. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0133.

Reece AS. Dentition of addiction in Queensland: Poor dental status and major contributing drugs. Aust Dent J. 2007;52(2):144-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2007.tb00480.x.