EFFECT OF RAINFALL ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RAINWATER IN MONITORING ACID DEPOSITION IN GREATER BANDUNG
Main Article Content
Aim: The study aimed to investigate the impact of rainwater on the acidity levelsto monitor acid deposition and identify sources of pollutant that affect the acidity concentrations of rainwater. Methodology and Results: One unit of rainwater sampler in each location was employed, andsamples were taken to the National Research and Innovation Agency laboratory (BRIN) for analysis of rainwater quality including acidity/pH degree, conductivity, and ion concentrations. The results show that high rainfall intensity (>300 mm/month) in April and December 2019 led to a decrease in electrical conductivity (<10 mS/cm) and ion compounds (>200 μmol/L) of rainwater, likely due to the dissolution/washing process of anions in the air during the rainy season and acid and alkaline neutralization in the dry season. The most identified chemical compounds were ammonium (NH4+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and salt (NaCl). Conclusion, significance, and impact study: Based on back-trajectory projections, the decline in rainwater quality was attributed to both local emissions (transportation, industry, agriculture, and waste burning) and long-range sources (earth crust, oceans, coastlines, marine activities, and anthropogenic and forest fires in the Australian territory).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- Journal publication right belongs to journal management with the author's knowledge, while moral publicationn right belongs to the author.
- Formal legal aspect of the journal publication accessibility refers to the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative (CC BY-NC-ND), which means that publication can be used for non-commercial purposes and in its original form (can not be modified).
- Each journal publication (print/electronic) is open access for educational purposes, research, and library. Beyond those, journal management is not responsible for copyright violations by certain parties.
Aribowo, D. et al. 2018. Application of the pH Sensor in the Electrolyzer Area at PT. Sulfide Adiusaha. PROSISKO Journal. 5(1): 9-12.
Bahtiyar, et al. 2014. Ordinary Kriging in Rainfall Estimation in Semarang City. Gaussian Journal. 3(2): 151-159.
Budiwati, T., Budiyono, A., Setyawati, W. & Indrawati, A., 2010. Pearson Correlation Analysis for Chemical Elements of Rainwater in Bandung. Journal of Aerospace Science. 7(2): 100-112.
Burhannudinnur, et al. 2020. The Effect of Harmful and Favorable Gas and Chemical Content Emitted by Mud Volcano to Environment. Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology. 4(1): 97-108. DOI: 10.25105/urbanenvirotech. v4i1.8001.
Dewi, M.,K. 2019. The Beginning of the 2019 Dry Season Begins in April.: https://www.bmkg.go.id/press-release/?p=awal-season-kemarau-2019-mulai-di-bulan-april&tag=press-release&lang=ID. [Accessed January 3, 2021].
EANET. 2019. Monitoring Data. https://monitoring.eanet.asia/document [Accessed January 3, 2021].
EPA. 2017. What Acid Rain. www.epa.gov [Accessed April 12, 2020].
Filkov, A.,I et al. 2020. Impact of Australia's Catastrophic 2019/20 Bushfire Season on Communities and Environment. Retrospective Analysis and Current Trends. Journal of Safety Science and Resilience. 1: 44-56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnlssr.2020.06.009.
Fitriani, et al. 2017. Estimating the Altitude of the Planetary Boundary Layer of Indonesia using ECMWF Reanalysis Era-Interm Data. Journal of Meteorology and Geophysics. 18(1): 21-31. DOI: 10.31172/jmg.v18i1.283.
Gumilar, I. et al. 2015. Land Subsidence in Bandung Basin and its Possible Caused Factors. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science. 12: 47-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeps.2015.03.026.
Handriyono, et al. 2017. A Study of SO2 and NOx Emissions from Industrial Activities in the Surabaya Sier Industrial Estate. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 3(2): 41-46.
Handriyono, et al. 2018. Study of Acid Content in Rainwater in East Surabaya Region. ENVIROSAN. 1(2): 52-55.
Irwan, et al. 2016. Analysis of the Relationship of Electrical Conductivity with Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Temperature in Several Types of Water. Journal of Physics Unand. 5(1): 85-93.DOI: 10.25077/jfu.5.1.85-93.2016.
Lestari, R., P. et al. 2018. Status of Wet Deposition in Several Monitoring Areas in Indonesia for the 2008-2015 Period. Ecolab. 12(2): 53-102. DOI: 10.20886/jklh.2018.12.2.71-82.
Mulyadi, A. et al. 2020. Measurement of Anion and Cation Levels in Wet Deposition using Ion Chromatography Method. Jakarta: Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University.
Permana, et al. 2015. Design and Test of Tipping Bucket Type Rain Meter with Photo Sensor - Interrupter Based on Arduino. Indonesian Journal of Physics Innovation. 04(03): 71-76.
Ruhiyat, R., & Siami, L. 2018. Optimization Biogas Management as Alternative Energy from communal Scale Dairy Farm. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 106: 012115. doi :10.1088/1755-1315/106/1/012115.
Ulfah, et al. 2018. Measuring Electro Conductivity in Hydroponic Nutrient Solutions Based on ATMEGA 8535 Microcontroller. Medan: University of North Sumatra.
Wardhani, N., K. et al. 2015. Study of Acidity of Rainwater Based on CO2, SO2, and NO2 Gas Content in the Air (Case Study of the Pontianak Aerospace Observation Center). ISSN. III(01): 09-14.